NDG Linux Essentials 2.21 | Open Source Software and Licensing Module 4 | Chapter 04 Exam Answers Full 100% 2023

These are questions of Cisco NDG Linux Essentials 2.21 Open Source Software and Licensing Chapter 04 Exam Answers full 100% with the latest version and updated in 2023. All answers are verified by experts with explanations.

  1. Linux source code is available to:

    •  Employees of the FBI, CIA and NSA with top secret clearance
    • Only employees of the Linux Foundation
    • Only university researchers with a government grant
    • Anyone who has the knowledge needed to access it
      Answers Explanation & Hint:

      The Linux source code is publicly available for anyone to access. It is released under the GNU General Public License (GPL), which allows users to view, modify, and distribute the source code freely. This means that anyone with the necessary knowledge and skills can access and work with the Linux source code, regardless of their affiliation with government agencies, organizations, or foundations.

      It’s important to note that while the Linux source code is open and accessible to the public, certain organizations and entities might have specific agreements or contracts with the Linux Foundation or other entities to support and maintain Linux or to receive additional services related to the Linux operating system. However, these agreements would pertain to support and services rather than exclusive access to the source code itself.

  2. Source code refers to:

    • The interface that software uses to talk to the kernel
    • The version of a program that the computer runs on the CPU
    • The license that dictates how you may use and share the software
    • A human-readable version of computer software
    • Answers Explanation & Hint:

      Source code refers to a human-readable version of computer software. It is the code written by developers in a high-level programming language before it is compiled or interpreted into machine code that the computer can execute. This human-readable code is used to create software applications and defines how the program behaves and functions.

  3. Open source means:

    (choose two)

    • You must share your changes
    • You must support the software you share
    • You can view the software’s source code
    • You can modify the software’s source code
    • You cannot charge anything for the software
    • Answers Explanation & Hint:

      Open source software allows users to access and examine the source code, and it permits them to make changes and modifications to the code as needed. This fosters a collaborative and transparent development environment. However, open source does not necessarily imply that you cannot charge for the software. Many open-source projects allow for both free and commercial use, but they may have specific licensing conditions that determine how the software can be used and distributed.

  4. A license where you don’t have access to the source code is called:

    • Closed source
    • Impaired source
    • Sourceless
    • Open source
    • Answers Explanation & Hint:

      A license where you don’t have access to the source code is called “Closed source.” In closed-source software, the source code is kept proprietary, and users only receive the compiled or executable version of the software. This restricts users from viewing, modifying, or distributing the underlying source code of the software.

  5. Open source licenses differ, but generally agree that:

    (choose two)

    • You should have access to the source code of software
    • You are not allowed to sell the software
    • You must redistribute your changes
    • You should be able modify the software as you wish
    • Answers Explanation & Hint:

      Open source licenses promote transparency and collaboration, allowing users to access and view the source code of the software. Additionally, these licenses usually grant users the freedom to modify the software to suit their needs or preferences.

      However, open source licenses do not typically impose restrictions on selling the software. Many open source licenses, such as the GNU General Public License (GPL), allow users to distribute modified versions of the software, but they may have specific conditions for how these modifications should be licensed and redistributed. Some open source licenses, like the Apache License or the MIT License, do not mandate that modifications must be shared when the software is redistributed.

  6. Richard Stallman is associated with:

    • The Apache foundation
    • Microsoft
    • The Free Software Foundation
    • BSD Unix
    • The Open Source Initiative
    • Answers Explanation & Hint:

      Richard Stallman is associated with The Free Software Foundation (FSF). He is a prominent software freedom activist and a computer programmer known for founding the FSF in 1985 and for initiating the GNU (GNU’s Not Unix) project. He is a strong advocate for free software, which promotes users’ freedom to view, modify, and share software with others. Stallman is often considered the father of the free software movement.

  7. A copyleft provision in a software license means:

    • If you redistribute the software, you must distribute the source to any changes you make
    • You must provide free copies of the software if you use it
    • You give up your copyright to the software
    • You may not link against third party closed source software
    • You must provide support for your modifications
  8. The largest difference between the GPLv2 and BSD licenses is:

    • Nothing, they are virtually identical
    • Only BSD allows commercial use
    • BSD has no copyleft provision
    • GPLv2 requires assigning copyright to the FSF
    • GPLv2 is not approved by the OSI
  9. The Free Software Foundation believes that:

    (choose two)

    • People should write software with no expectation of making money
    • Software should not have copyright
    • Software should be free to share
    • No money should ever change hands
    • Software should be free to modify
  10. Which of the following licenses was made by the FSF?

    • GPLv3
    • BSD
    • MIT
    • Creative Commons
    • Apache
  11. A permissive free software license:

    (choose two)

    • Requires you share software changes but not binaries
    • Means you can use the software for anything you want
    • Does not allow the software to be locked to certain hardware
    • Places no restrictions on sharing modifications
    • Places the software in the public domain
  12. Linux is distributed under which license?

    • GPLv2
    • BSD
    • MIT
    • Linux Foundation
    • GPLv3
  13. Who founded the Open Source Initiative?

    (choose two)

    • Eric Raymond
    • Bruce Perens
    • Richard Stallman
    • Linus Torvalds
    • University of California at Berkeley
  14. A generic term for Open Source and Free Software is:

    • SLOFF
    • Libre Software
    • OS/FS
    • FLOSS
    • GPL
  15. Which are examples of permissive software licenses?

    (choose two)

    • MIT
    • BSD
    • GPLv
    • LGPLv3
    • GPLv3
  16. What does it mean when a work is placed in the public domain?

    • The work was done by a government agency
    • The author has relinquished the copyright on the work
    • You must redistribute changes to the software
    • The author has died
    • You may not use the work for commercial purposes
  17. Creative Commons licenses allow you to:

    (choose three)

    • Allow or disallow commercial use
    • Specify whether or not people may distribute changes
    • Specify whether or not changes must be shared
    • Receive royalties on the use of the work
    • Get a veto on where the work is used
  18. If a podcast is licensed under the CC BY-ND license, you may:

    (choose two)

    • Share it as long as you give credit to the author
    • Post it to your website
    • Sell it as part of a compilation
    • Add ads to it and post it to your website.
    • Use an interview or song from it for your own podcast
  19. How can you make money from open source software?

    (choose three)

    • Unlock premium features for people that pay
    • Charge a yearly fee for the right to use the software
    • Sell hardware that’s built to work with the software
    • Take payments for fixing bugs
    • Provide paid consulting services for users
  20. The difference between the GPL and LGPL licenses are:

    • LGPL allows you to distribute the software in binary-only form
    • LGPL is shorter than GPL
    • LGPL ensures that all variants of the original GPL program has the same freedom of use as the original
    • LGPL was made by the OSI while GPL was made by the FSF
    • LGPL applies to web services
  21. Permissive free software licenses:

    (choose three)

    • Are not approved by the OSI
    • Can allow software to be used inside closed source software
    • Are not approved by the FSF
    • Include the GPLv2 and BSD
    • Don’t have a copyleft provision
  22. The Creative Commons version of Public Domain licensing is:

    • NoAttribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA)
    • Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)
    • No Rights Reserved (CC0)
    • Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA)
    • Attribution (CC BY)
  23. Your company makes a hardware firewall that runs a custom Linux kernel. What are your obligations under GPLv2?

    • There are no requirements
    • You must make the source to your kernel available
    • You must make your hardware designs available
    • You must make the source to your custom web interface available
    • You must ensure your custom kernel runs on a regular Intel machine
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