NDG Linux Essentials 2.21 | Final Comprehensive Modules 2-18 | Chapter 2-18 Exam Answers Full 100% 2023
These are questions of Cisco NDG Linux Essentials 2.21 Final Comprehensive Chapter 2-18 Exam Answers full 100% with the latest version and updated in 2023. All answers are verified by experts with explanations.
Embedded Systems means:
- Businesses cannot charge anything for the software, only the hardware
- Systems designed to do a specific task on hardware optimized for only that purpose
- Users must support the systems themselves
- You can view the software’s source code
- Companies must share their changes
Linux originally only ran on:
- Specialized processor chips
- Raspberry Pi computers
- Xerox copy machines
- Intel 386 PCs
Bundling utilities, management tools, and application software with a Linux kernel is called a:
- A text editor
- A type of hardware
- A distribution of Linux
- A trademark
A software release cycle describes:
- How often the software’s memory is released back to the operating system
- How often the computer must be rebooted
- How often upgrades come out for software
- How often security fixes are implemented
- How often the computer must be upgraded to support new software
Apple’s OS X is:
- Tightly integrated with Apple hardware
- A fully certified UNIX distribution
- Primarily used to manage network services
- Able to natively run Windows binaries
- Derived from Linux
- Partially based on code from the FreeBSD project
- Offers both desktop and server products
- Has a short maintenance cycle
- Has a Linux compatibility mode
- Is generally backwards compatible with previous versions
- Has a scripting environment called PowerShell
- Has a new desktop version every year.
An interpreted programming language:
- Takes fewer resources to run than a compiled language
- Requires a compilation step but no linking step
- Tends to offer more features than compiled languages
- Is converted into machine specific instructions as the program runs
- Requires a linking step but no compilation step
The two main families of Linux shells are:
- Korn shell
- Bourne Shell
- C Shell
- Python Shell
In virtualization, what are the host and guest?
- The guest is the machine that runs the virtual machines
- The terms can be used interchangeably
- The host is the machine that runs the virtual machines
- A guest is a virtual machine
- A host is a virtual machine
Cloud computing is:
- Is made possible by faster internet speeds
- Is useful for both business and home users
- All are correct
- Requires fewer resources because systems are shared among many users
- Allows users in different geographical regions to work together in real time
Which of the following are properties of a strong password?
- Includes symbols
- At least 10 characters long
- A mix of upper and lower case
- Based on easy to remember items like birthdays
- Long so that it can be reused on multiple sites
A license where you don’t have access to the source code is called:
- Closed source
- Impaired source
- Open source
A copyleft provision in a software license means:
- You must provide support for your modifications
- You must provide free copies of the software if you use it
- You may not link against third party closed source software
- You give up your copyright to the software
- If you redistribute the software, you must distribute the source to any changes you make
The Free Software Foundation believes that:
- Software should be free to modify
- Software should be free to share
- No money should ever change hands
- People should write software with no expectation of making money
- Software should not have copyright
What does it mean when a work is placed in the public domain?
- The author has relinquished the copyright on the work
- The author has died
- You must redistribute changes to the software
- You may not use the work for commercial purposes
- The work was done by a government agency
The semicolon (
;) can be used to separate multiple commands to be executed in order.
True or False?
To be able to output messages to the screen, use the _______ command:
The _______ command will print a list of the commands that you’ve previously executed.
HOME is an example of _________.
- An internal command
- An alias
- A path variable
- A local variable
- An environment variable
The directory where additional documentation for software packages most likely can be found is:
To start searching a man page, the first key you press is:
To get help on using the
- help info
- man info
- info -q
- info info
The _____ command can be used to find any file, not just commands or man pages.
Hidden files are files that begin with what character?
- A dash (-)
- A plus (+)
- A period (.)
- An asterisk (*)
The top-level directory on a Linux system is represented as:
lscommand without options or arguments…
- …lists the contents of the current directory.
- …prompts for a directory to list.
- …generates an error as this command requires arguments.
- …lists the contents of a user’s home directory.
ls -Swill sort files:
- By size, smallest to largest
- By size, largest to smallest
- By number of symlinks, largest to smallest
- By modification date, newest to oldest
When using the
cpcommand, you must provide both a source and a destination.
True or False?
Which option can be used with the
rmcommand to prompt before deleting?
Which command would list files that do not begin with a
In general, for which of the following would you want to use lossless compression?
- An mp3 audio file
- A movie
- A JPEG image
- A log file
- An encrypted email
gzip myfile.tar. What happens?
- An error; you forgot to pass the name of the output file
myfile.taris unarchived into the current directory
myfile.tar.gzholds a compressed version of
- An error; you forgot to specify the file with
Which command will show what is inside the compressed tarball with a name of
tar –tf foo.tar.gz
tar –lf foo.tar.gz
tar –tzf foo.tar.gz
tar –tjf foo.tar.gz
tar –xf foo.tar.gz
By default, the
zipcommand replaces uncompressed files with compressed files.
True or False?
Error messages generated by commands are sent where by default?
- Log files
Which of the following commands will display only lines that begin with
grep $test* file.txt
grep ^test file.txt
grep &test file.txt
grep *test file.txt
Which of the following commands will display lines that contain either start or end?
egrep start end file.txt
egrep (start|end) file.txt
egrep start&end file.txt
egrep 'start|end' file.txt
A file begins with
- Nothing, this is a comment
- This is a Perl script
- Running the script will invoke
/bin/cshto interpret the rest of the file
- The operator should not be using
- C Shell compatibility mode is enabled
nano’s commands take the form of:
- Alt and another character
- Control and another character
- The F1 through F12 function keys
- Mouse clicks
- Escape followed by another character
ifcommand looks for what exit code to consider a condition to be true?
The number of users logged in is in a variable called
USERS. How would you test to see if there are 5 users logged in?
test –f USERS=5
test $USERS –eq 5
test $USERS = 5
test $USERS –a 5
Which of the following are valid partitioning types?
Software that allows hardware devices to communicate with the installed operating system is called?
Which of the following commands will check hard disk GPT partitions?(choose three)
The process (
ps) command shows only processes running in the current shell by default.
True or False?
freecommand outputs statistics about:
- Disk usage
- Memory usage
- Software usage
- CPU usage
Which file contains the information passed to the kernel at boot time?
To make changes permanent for kernel parameter files found under /proc/sys, the following file can have entries added to it:
Which of the following commands will display the IP address on a Linux system?
The RSA key fingerprint allows the
digcommand to connect to remote systems.
True or False?
When issuing the
service network restartcommand, which of the following occurs?
- …the networking for the system is stopped and then started back up.
- …brings up all network interfaces, re-reads all related configuration files and then the networking for the system is restarted.
- …takes down all network interfaces, re-reads all related configuration files and then the networking for the system is restarted.
Which of the following commands can be used to display socket statistics, and supports all major packet and socket types?
Which of the following commands will display the groups that the user bob belongs to?
Traditional UNIX systems allowed users to belong to how many groups?
A value of 0 in the “minimum” password aging field means the user cannot change their password.
True or False?
Sudo privileges allow users to execute commands as another user.
True or False?
The first line of this command displays how long the system has been running since being rebooted.
Which option for the
usermodcommand can be used to specify a user’s group ID (either primary or secondary)?
groupmodcommand can be used to add users to a group.
True or False?
Which of the following files contains user IDs?
Which of the following commands, run as root, will prevent the user
bobfrom logging in?
usermod -D bob
usermod -d bob
usermod -L bob
usermod -l bob
What directory contains a user’s home directory?
GIDs under 500 (or 1000) are usually reserved for what kind of groups?
- System use
- User private groups (UPG)
- Are not used for groups, but for user accounts
A user cannot delete a file if they do not own it. True or False?
chowncommand permits changing group ownership done by root only. True or False?
Which of the following commands will list hidden files as well as their ownership?
Which of the following commands will set setuid for the
chmod 1755 /usr/bin/program
- None of the above
chmod 2755 /usr/bin/program
chmod 4755 /usr/bin/program
Setting setgid on a directory…
- …will set the group owner of all files created in the directory to the group owner of the directory.
- …will allow scripts in the directory to be executed as the group owner of the directory.
- …does nothing.
- …is not allowed by the system.
Deleting a source file will break an associated hard link. True or False?
Which of the following commands would create a hard link, link to file?
ln link file
ln -s file link
ln -s link file
ln file link